Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP)

Charlotte Bell

Charlotte Bell outlines the most recent understanding of bovine neonatal pancytopenia, a disease which appeared following use of an inactivated vaccine for BVD. There appears to be a multi-factorial causality, involving colostrum intake, genetics and factors associated with the inactivated vaccine.

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Role of transient infection

Francesco Testa
 

Acute infection leads to leukopenia, increased susceptibility to other diseases, and greater associated morbidity/mortality. Although persistently infected (PI) animals are primarily responsible for the spread of BVD disease, acutely infected animals also play an important role. By infecting pregnant animals, transiently viraemic cows can lead to the generation of PI animals.


Infection of the foetus with BVD virus: different phases

Axel Mauroy
 

Infection with BVD virus leads to different disease outcomes according to the phase of bovine gestation. Infection during the first month of gestation may result in embryonic mortality, whereas infection during the second to fourth month may lead to the generation of persistently infected, immunotolerant calves. Infection later in gestation may lead to abortion and to congenital abnormalities.


Generation of animals persistently infected with BVD virus

John Fishwick
 

Infection with BVD virus can lead to transient infection which usually causes no or mild disease in cattle. Infection of the dam in the first trimester of gestation can lead to persistent infection of the foetus. Persistently infected (PI) animals shed vast quantities of virus throughout their lives.